Tokyo Workshop on International Development 2017

 

 

※ 9月20日現在

※ 特に表記のない限りセミナー発表は英語で行われます(Unless otherwise mentioned, presentations are in ENGLISH)。

※ Workshop background

<今後の予定>

日時

November 27, 2017 (Monday) 10:30-12:00

※主催:ミクロ実証分析ワークショップ

場所

東京大学大学院経済学研究科 学術交流棟 (小島ホール)1階 第1セミナー室
in Seminar Room 1 on the 1st floor of the Economics Research Annex (Kojima Hall) [Map]

報告

Tomomi Tanaka (World Bank)

TBA

Abstract

 

 


<終了分>

日時

April 10, 2017 (Monday) 1) 16:30-17:30, 2) 17:40-18:40

※共催:ミクロ経済学ワークショップ

場所

東京大学大学院経済学研究科 学術交流棟 (小島ホール)1階 第1セミナー室
in Seminar Room 1 on the 1st floor of the Economics Research Annex (Kojima Hall) [Map]

報告

1) 16:30-17:30 Yasuyuki Sawada (Asian Development Bank)
Impact Assessment of Infrastructure Projects on Poverty Reduction

References)
1) https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/154248/adbi-wp511.pdf

2) Yasuyuki Sawada, Ryuji Kasahara, Keitaro Aoyagi, Masahiro Shoji and Mika Ueyama (2013) "Modes of Collective Action in Village Economies: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in a Developing Country," Asian Development Review 30(1), 31-51, MIT Press for Asian Development Bank. [paper]

 

2) 17:40-18:40 Nobuhiko Fuwa (The University of Tokyo)
Disasters and Commitments: Evidence from Japan and the Philippines


Abstract)
A number of recent studies have investigated the impact of disaster experience on individual preference parameters such as risk aversion and time discount rate. Yet, there are two remaining issues in the literature: First, the parameter under investigations is different depending on the study, generating largely mixed empirical results; and second, there is no theoretical underpinning to interpret these empirical findings. We aim to bridge these gaps and to solve the "measurement without theory" problem in the existing literature on individual preferences and disasters by investigating the impact of natural disasters on present bias, time discount, and intertemporal elasticity of substitution parameters, which are elicited in an integrated manner by a new experimental technique called the Convex Time Budget (CTB) experiments developed by Andreoni and Sprenger (2012) and Andreoni, Kuhn, and Sprenger (2013). Based on this approach, we employ unique experimental data collected from village in the Philippines, which was hit by a strong monsoon flood, Habagat, in 2012 and from the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami affected Iwanuma City in Japan to investigate the overall impacts of natural disasters on individual preferences and decisions. Three common empirical results emerge: First, the CTB experiment offers reasonable levels of time discounting, moderate curvature and quasihyperbolic discounting in the whole sample. Second, we find that being hit by the flood or the tsunami makes an individual significantly more present-biased than those who are unaffected by the disaster. Finally, present-biasness or hyperbolic discounting is correlated with harmful behaviors: gambling and drinking in the Philippines and deteriorated health behavior among the elders in Iwanuma City. These findings provide important policy implications in helping disaster victims. Commitment devices seem to be indispensable to mitigate the negative consequences of reinforced present biasness.

 

日時

April 24, 2017 (Monday) 16:50-18:35

主催: GraSPP Public Policy Research Seminar

場所

東京大学大学院経済学研究科 学術交流棟 (小島ホール)1階 第1セミナー室
in Seminar Room 1 on the 1st floor of the Economics Research Annex (Kojima Hall) [Map]

報告

Yvonne Jie Chen (National University of Singapore)

Early life exposure to tap water and the development of cognitive skils (Joint with Li Li and Yun Xiao) [paper]

Abstract

To improve drinking water accessibility and safety in rural China, the Chinese government launched the rural drinking water program in the 1980s. As part of the program, tap water infrastructure has been constructed in rural areas to supply tap water to rural residents. This policy intervention provides a unique opportunity to examine the impact of early life exposure to tap water on children’s cognitive achievement in later life. Using data extracted from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we find that one additional year of exposure to tap water in early life increases average cognitive test score by 0.109 standard deviations for a sample of rural children aged 10-15 in 2010. The effect is larger for children whose fathers are less-educated. Event study estimates confirm that the beneficial impacts are concentrated in early life with limited additional impact after the time window.

 

日時

June 19, 2017 (Monday) 10:30-12:00

※主催:ミクロ実証分析ワークショップ

場所

東京大学大学院経済学研究科 学術交流棟 (小島ホール)1階 第1セミナー室
in Seminar Room 1 on the 1st floor of the Economics Research Annex (Kojima Hall) [Map]

報告

Jamie McCasland (University of British Columbia)

Are Small Firms Labor Constrained? Experimental Evidence from Ghana (joint with Morgan Hardy)

Abstract

 

 

日時

July 24, 2017 (Monday) 10:30-12:00

※主催:ミクロ実証分析ワークショップ

場所

東京大学大学院経済学研究科 学術交流棟 (小島ホール)1階 第1セミナー室
in Seminar Room 1 on the 1st floor of the Economics Research Annex (Kojima Hall) [Map]

報告

Ryoko Sato (World Bank)

Income tax collection and non-compliance in Ghana (joint with Edward Asiedu, Chuqiao Bi, Dan Pavelesku and Tomomi Tanaka) [paper]

 

Tomomi Tanaka (World Bank)

Monetary and non-monetary poverty in urban slums in Accra: Combining geospatial data and machine learning to study urban poverty (joint with Ryan Engstrom, Dan Pavelesku and Ayago Wambile) [paper]

Abstract

Ryoko Sato (World Bank)

Income tax collection and non-compliance in Ghana (joint with Edward Asiedu, Chuqiao Bi, Dan Pavelesku and Tomomi Tanaka)

Ghana’s tax collection is very low compared with other lower middle-income countries. The revenue from income tax is particularly low, lower than the average of low-income countries. Non-compliance of tax payments is an urgent issue in Ghana, as the government has been suffering from a widening fiscal deficit and a rising debt burden. This paper combines data from household surveys, the business census, and administrative income tax data, and examines the scale of non-compliance and potential revenue gains from the enforcement of tax collection in Ghana. Business census data suggests the actual number of formal sector workers is higher than the number of formal sector workers reported both in the household survey and the administrative income tax data in Ghana. The income tax files do not include the individuals who work for formal sector firms which failed to file PAYE (Pay As You Earn), whereas the household data suffers from under-sampling and under-reporting of high-wage income earners. By combining the household survey data and the administrative income tax data, and adjusting the number of formal sector workers using the business census, we reconstruct the distribution of wage earners in the formal sector who are subject to income tax, and estimate potential income tax revenue gain from the enforcement of tax collection. We find the income tax revenue could have been higher by 582 million Cedi (equivalent to 0.5 percent of the GDP) if everyone who filed income tax in 2014 had paid the full amounts of income tax due. If all formal sector firms and organizations, regardless of whether they actually filed income tax or not in 2016 paid the full amounts of PAYE for all their employees, the income tax revenue could have been higher by 1.2 billion Cedi (equivalent to 1.4 percent of GDP). In 2016, we observe a further reduction of income tax revenue. The total income tax revenue could have been higher by 3.6 billion Cedi (2.2 percent of GDP) if all formal sector firms and organizations, regardless of whether they actually filed income tax or not in 2016, paid the full amounts of PAYE for all their employees.

Tomomi Tanaka (World Bank)

Monetary and non-monetary poverty in urban slums in Accra: Combining geospatial data and machine learning to study urban poverty (joint with Ryan Engstrom, Dan Pavelesku and Ayago Wambile)

As Sub-Saharan Africa continues to urbanize, slum populations are growing at 4.5 percent per year. Providing housing to slum dwellers, protecting them from natural disasters and diseases, and connecting them to jobs and services through improved infrastructure are urgent policy issues in many Sub-Saharan African cities. Identifying the location and living conditions of slums is a critical step toward designing effective urban policies. By combining household survey data and census data with high spatial resolution satellite imagery and other geospatial data using multiple methodologies, including machine learning, we attempt to define slums objectively within the city of Accra. Within these defined slum areas, the patterns of monetary and non-monetary poverty are assessed. Poverty rates are estimated at the neighborhood level and indicate that living in slums is strongly correlated with higher monetary poverty, higher fertility among women, and lower school attendance among children. Poverty is more prevalent in communities in areas of lower elevation, which in Accra are generally flood-prone areas. Ethnic, religious, and regional ties are important reasons people live in slums for long periods of time. People born in the community and ethnic majorities are more likely to get jobs in the manufacturing sector, while ethnic minorities, and new migrants tend to get jobs in the wholesale sector in poorer slum communities. Overall, the results indicate a wide range in economic opportunities between slum communities. These results have important policy implications and are crucial to understand the impact of social networks and how they generate economic opportunities in slums so that effective urban policies can be designed.