CIRJE-F-302 "Voice Matters in a Dictator Game"
Author Name Yamamori, Tetsuo, Kazuhiko Kato, Toshiji Kawagoe and Akihiko Matsui
Date September 2004
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We examine a dictator game with a "voice" option in the laboratory. In our experiment, the recipient has an opportunity to state a payoff-irrelevant request for the minimum acceptable offer before the dictator dictates his/her offer. In this game, it is predicted not only by the standard game theory, but by the behavioral game theory such as theories of other-regarding preferences, that the dictator's offer is independent of the recipient's request. Some findings based on our data are as follows: the above independence hypothesis is rejected; as the recipient's request increases, the dictator's offer increases when the requests are less than 50% of the pie; on the other hand, when the request goes beyond 50% of the pie, the offer decreases as the request increases. That is, "voice" matters in a dictator game. We also conduct a clustering analysis to classify dictators' behaviour into some notable patterns. As a result, we obtain the following three behavioural patterns: the other-disregarding, the punishing the greedy, and the lenient.